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Cetyl Alcohol
Cetyl Alcohol
Cetyl alcohol use in industrial use, personal care, industrial & institutional cleaning, pharmaceutical. Appearance is white solid. It is sweet odour. Precaustions is avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing, wash thoroughly after handling. Provide adequate ventilation. Do not flush into surface water or sanitary sewer system. Aquatic toxicity is unlikely due to low solubility. Readily biodegradable.
It can be added to formulas as a moisturizer to treat or prevent dry, rough, scaly, itchy skin and minor skin irritations (e.g., diaper rash, skin burns from radiation therapy).
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Lauric Acid
Lauric Acid
Lauric acid or systematically, dodecanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with a 12-carbon atom chain, thus falling into the medium chain fatty acids, is a white, powdery solid with a faint odor of bay oil or soap. Lauric acid is a particular type of fatty acid found in saturated-fat foods. The single best source of lauric acid is coconuts, and in fact many of the benefits of coconut oil that have been well-established in research settings are due to the presence of lauric acid.
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Myristic Acid
Myristic Acid
Myristic acid, also called tetradecanoic acid, is a common saturated fatty acid with the molecular formula CH3(CH2)12COOH. A myristate is a salt or ester of myristic acid. Myristic acid is named after the nutmeg Myristica fragrans.
Nutmeg butter has 75% trimyristin, the triglyceride of myristic acid. Besides nutmeg, myristic acid is also found in palm kernel oil, coconut oil, butter fat and is a minor component of many other animal fats. It is also found in spermaceti, the crystallized fraction of oil from the sperm whale. It is also found in the rhizomes of the Iris, including Orris root.
Myristic acid is commonly added co-translationally to the penultimate, nitrogen-terminus, glycine in receptor-associated kinases to confer the membrane localisation of the enzyme.The myristic acid has a sufficiently high hydrophobicity to become incorporated into the fatty acyl core of the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of the eukaryotic cell. In this way, myristic acid acts as a lipid anchor in biomembranes. The ester isopropyl myristate is used in cosmetic and topical medicinal preparations where good absorption through the skin is desired. Reduction of myristic acid yields myristyl aldehyde and myristyl alcohol.
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Palmitic Acid
Palmitic Acid
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOH. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from palm trees (palm oil), but can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products. Palmitate is a term for the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid.
Palmitic acid was discovered by Edmond Frémy in 1840, in saponified palm oil.[10] This remains the primary industrial route for its production, with the triglycerides (fats) in palm oil being hydrolysed by high temperature water (above 200 °C or 390 °F) and the resulting mixture fractionally distilled to give the pure product.
Palmitic acid is naturally produced by a wide range of other plants and organisms, typically at low levels. It is naturally present in butter, cheese, milk and meat also as well as cocoa butter, soybean oil and sunflower oil. The cetyl ester of palmitic acid (cetyl palmitate) occurs in spermaceti.
Palmitic acid is used to produce soaps, cosmetics, and release agents. These applications utilize sodium palmitate, which is commonly obtained by saponification of palm oil. To this end, palm oil, rendered from palm tree (species Elaeis Guineensis), is treated with sodium hydroxide (in the form of caustic soda or lye), which causes hydrolysis of the ester groups. This procedure affords glycerol and sodium palmitate.
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Stearic Acid
Stearic Acid
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H. Its name comes from the Greek word "stéar", which means tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid. The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin. Stearic acid is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water (above 200 °C). The resulting mixture is then distilled.Commercial stearic acid is often a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available.
Fats and oils rich in stearic acid are more abundant in animal fat (up to 30%) than in vegetable fat (typically <5%). The important exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter, where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28–45%.
In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery wherein acetyl-CoA contributes two-carbon building blocks. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol, glycol stearate, and glycol distearate are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. They are added to the product in molten form and allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid.
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