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Palmitic Acid
Palmitic Acid
Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Its chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOH. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from palm trees (palm oil), but can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products. Palmitate is a term for the salts and esters of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid.
Palmitic acid was discovered by Edmond Frémy in 1840, in saponified palm oil.[10] This remains the primary industrial route for its production, with the triglycerides (fats) in palm oil being hydrolysed by high temperature water (above 200 °C or 390 °F) and the resulting mixture fractionally distilled to give the pure product.
Palmitic acid is naturally produced by a wide range of other plants and organisms, typically at low levels. It is naturally present in butter, cheese, milk and meat also as well as cocoa butter, soybean oil and sunflower oil. The cetyl ester of palmitic acid (cetyl palmitate) occurs in spermaceti.
Palmitic acid is used to produce soaps, cosmetics, and release agents. These applications utilize sodium palmitate, which is commonly obtained by saponification of palm oil. To this end, palm oil, rendered from palm tree (species Elaeis Guineensis), is treated with sodium hydroxide (in the form of caustic soda or lye), which causes hydrolysis of the ester groups. This procedure affords glycerol and sodium palmitate.
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Isopropyl Palmitate IPP
Isopropyl Palmitate (IPP)
Isopropyl palmitate is the ester of isopropyl alcohol and palmitic acid. It is an emollient, moisturizer, thickening agent, and anti-static agent. The chemical formula is CH3(CH2)14COOCH(CH3)2. Isopropyl Palmitate is a colorless, almost odorless, liquid. In cosmetics and personal care products, the Palmitates are used in a wide spectrum of products.
The Palmitate ingredients act as lubricants on the skin's surface, which gives the skin a soft and smooth appearance. Isopropyl Palmitate may be used as a binder which is an ingredient added to compounded dry powder mixtures of solids to provide adhesive qualities during and after compression to make tablets or cakes.
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Lanolin
Lanolin
Lanolin (from Latin lāna, ‘wool’, and oleum, ‘oil’), also called wool wax or wool grease, is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals. Lanolin used by humans comes from domestic sheep breeds that are raised specifically for their wool. Historically, many pharmacopoeias have referred to lanolin as wool fat (adeps lanae); however, as lanolin lacks glycerides (glycerol esters), it is not a true fat. Lanolin primarily consists of sterol esters instead. Lanolin's waterproofing property aids sheep in shedding water from their coats. Certain breeds of sheep produce large amounts of lanolin. There is an inverse correlation between fiber diameter and wool wax content.
Lanolin’s role in nature is to protect wool and skin against the ravages of climate and the environment; it also seems to play a role in skin (integumental) hygiene. Lanolin and its many derivatives are used extensively in products designed for the protection, treatment and beautification of human skin.
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PEG 7 Glyceril Cocoate
PEG 7 Glyceril Cocoate
PEG Glyceril Cocoate is non-ionic, ethoxlyated polyethylene glycol ester made from glycerin & coconut oil. Clear oily liquid, characteristic odor. Soluble in water & alcohols, insoluble in oils. HLB value 11 (gives oil-in-water emulsions).
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Potassium Chloride
Potassium Chloride
The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chloride. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water and its solutions have a salt-like taste. KCl is used in medicine, scientific applications, food processing, and used to cause cardiac arrest as the third drug in the "three drug cocktail" for executions by lethal injection. It occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite and in combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite.
Potassium chloride is extracted from minerals sylvite, carnallite, and potash. It is also extracted from salt water and can be manufactured by crystallization from solution, flotation or electrostatic separation from suitable minerals. It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid.

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Propyl Paraben
Propyl Paraben
Propylparaben, the n-propyl ester of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, occurs as a natural substance found in many plants and some insects, although it is manufactured synthetically for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and foods. It is a preservative typically found in many water-based cosmetics, such as creams, lotions, shampoos and bath products. As a food additive, it has the E number E216.
Sodium propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, the sodium salt of propylparaben, a compound with formula Na(C3H7(C6H4COO)O), is also used similarly as a food additive and as an anti-fungal preservation agent. Its E number is E217.
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Isohexadacane
Isohexadacane
Isohexadacane is used in skin care and sun care products. Isohexadacane is colourless. Density @20 oC is 0.78-0.8. Refractive index is 1.430-1.450. Viscosity is <20 pcs @20oC.It is excellent emollient for makeup products. It is compatibility for hair care and moisturizing for skin care.
The applications of isohexadacane is creams and lotions, eye cream, sunscreen preparations, sunless tanning preparations, sunless tanning preparations, foundation, eyeliner, lipstick, lipgloss, hair conditioner.
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Collagen
Collagen
Collagen is one of the long, fibrous structural proteins whose functions are quite different from those of globular proteins, such as enzymes. Tough bundles of collagen called collagen fibers are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells structure from the outside, but collagen is also found inside certain cells. Collagen has great tensile strength, and is the main component of fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin.
Along with elastin and soft keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging. It strengthens blood vessels and plays a role in tissue development. It is present in the cornea and lens of the eye in crystalline form. It may be one of the most abundant proteins in the fossil record, given that it appears to fossilize frequently, even in bones from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.
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Stearic Acid
Stearic Acid
Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid with an 18-carbon chain and has the IUPAC name octadecanoic acid. It is a waxy solid and its chemical formula is C17H35CO2H. Its name comes from the Greek word "stéar", which means tallow. The salts and esters of stearic acid are called stearates. As its ester, stearic acid is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in nature following palmitic acid. The triglyceride derived from three molecules of stearic acid is called stearin. Stearic acid is obtained from fats and oils by the saponification of the triglycerides using hot water (above 200 °C). The resulting mixture is then distilled.Commercial stearic acid is often a mixture of stearic and palmitic acids, although purified stearic acid is available.
Fats and oils rich in stearic acid are more abundant in animal fat (up to 30%) than in vegetable fat (typically <5%). The important exceptions are cocoa butter and shea butter, where the stearic acid content (as a triglyceride) is 28–45%.
In terms of its biosynthesis, stearic acid is produced from carbohydrates via the fatty acid synthesis machinery wherein acetyl-CoA contributes two-carbon building blocks. Esters of stearic acid with ethylene glycol, glycol stearate, and glycol distearate are used to produce a pearly effect in shampoos, soaps, and other cosmetic products. They are added to the product in molten form and allowed to crystallize under controlled conditions. Detergents are obtained from amides and quaternary alkylammonium derivatives of stearic acid.
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Propylene Glycol USP PG USP
Propylene Glycol USP (PG USP)
Propylene glycol, also called propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2. It is a viscous colorless liquid which is nearly odorless but possesses a faintly sweet taste. Chemically it is classed as a diol and is miscible with a broad range of solvents, including water, acetone, and chloroform.
It is produced on a large scale and is primarily used in the production of polymers but also sees use in food processing.
The compound is sometimes called α-propylene glycol to distinguish it from the isomer propane-1,3-diol (β-propylene glycol).

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Microcrystaline Wax
Microcrystaline Wax
Microcrystalline wax is often used in industries such as the tire and rubber, candles, adhesives, corrugated board, cosmetics, castings, and a host of others. Refineries may also utilize blending facilities to combine paraffin and microcrystalline waxes. This type of activity is prevalent especially for industries such as tire and rubber.
Microcrystalline waxes have considerable application in the custom making of jewelry and small sculptures. Different formulations produce waxes from those soft enough to be molded by hand to those hard enough to be carved with rotary tools. The melted wax can be cast to make multiple copies that are further carved with details. Jewelry suppliers sell wax molded into the basic forms of rings as well as details that can be heat welded together and tubes and sheets for cutting and building the wax models. Rings may be attached to a wax "tree" so many can be cast in one pouring.
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Polyvinyl  Pyrrolidone K30 PVP K30
Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30)
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), also commonly called polyvidone or povidone, is a water-soluble polymer made from the monomer N-vinylpyrrolidone. PVP was used as a plasma volume expander for trauma victims after the 1950s. It is used as a binder in many pharmaceutical tablets, it simply passes through the body when taken orally. However, autopsies have found that crospovidone (PVPP) contributes to pulmonary vascular injury in substance abusers who have injected pharmaceutical tablets intended for oral consumption. The long-term effects of crospovidone or povidone within the lung are unknown. PVP added to iodine forms a complex called povidone-iodine that possesses disinfectant properties.This complex is used in various products like solutions, ointment, pessaries, liquid soaps and surgical scrubs. It is known under the trade names Pyodine and Betadine among a plethora of others. It is used in pleurodesis (fusion of the pleura because of incessant pleural effusions). For this purpose, povidone iodine is equally effective and safe as talc, and may be preferred because of easy availability and low cost. Povidone is used as a lubricant in some eye drops.

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