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Collagen

Collagen has a wide variety of applications, from food to medical. For instance, it is used in cosmetic surgery and burn surgery. It is widely used in the form of collagen casings for sausages, which are also used in the manufacture of musical strings.
If collagen is subject to sufficient denaturation, e.g. by heating, the three tropocollagen strands separate partially or completely into globular domains, containing a different secondary structure to the normal collagen polyproline II (PPII), e.g. random coils. This process describes the formation of gelatin, which is used in many foods, including flavored gelatin desserts. Besides food, gelatin has been used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and photography industries.From a nutritional point of view, collagen and gelatin are a poor-quality sole source of protein since they do not contain all the essential amino acids in the proportions that the human body requires—they are not 'complete proteins' (as defined by food science, not that they are partially structured). Manufacturers of collagen-based dietary supplements usually containing hydrolyzed collagen claim that their products can improve skin and fingernail quality as well as joint health. However, mainstream scientific research has not shown strong evidence to support these claims. Individuals with problems in these areas are more likely to be suffering from some other underlying condition (such as normal aging, dry skin, arthritis etc.) rather than just a protein deficiency.
From the Greek for glue, kolla, the word collagen means "glue producer" and refers to the early process of boiling the skin and sinews of horses and other animals to obtain glue. Collagen adhesive was used by Egyptians about 4,000 years ago, and Native Americans used it in bows about 1,500 years ago. The oldest glue in the world, carbon-dated as more than 8,000 years old, was found to be collagen—used as a protective lining on rope baskets and embroidered fabrics, and to hold utensils together; also in crisscross decorations on human skulls.Collagen normally converts to gelatin, but survived due to dry conditions. Animal glues are thermoplastic, softening again upon reheating, and so they are still used in making musical instruments such as fine violins and guitars, which may have to be reopened for repairs—an application incompatible with tough, synthetic plastic adhesives, which are permanent. Animal sinews and skins, including leather, have been used to make useful articles for millennia.
Gelatin-resorcinol-formaldehyde glue (and with formaldehyde replaced by less-toxic pentanedial and ethanedial) has been used to repair experimental incisions in rabbit lungs.

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Collagen
Collagen
Collagen is one of the long, fibrous structural proteins whose functions are quite different from those of globular proteins, such as enzymes. Tough bundles of collagen called collagen fibers are a major component of the extracellular matrix that supports most tissues and gives cells structure from the outside, but collagen is also found inside certain cells. Collagen has great tensile strength, and is the main component of fascia, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, bone and skin.
Along with elastin and soft keratin, it is responsible for skin strength and elasticity, and its degradation leads to wrinkles that accompany aging. It strengthens blood vessels and plays a role in tissue development. It is present in the cornea and lens of the eye in crystalline form. It may be one of the most abundant proteins in the fossil record, given that it appears to fossilize frequently, even in bones from the Mesozoic and Paleozoic.ulang dari Mesozoikum dan Paleozoikum.
Detail :
Kolagen memiliki berbagai macam aplikasi, dari makanan untuk kesehatan. Misalnya, digunakan dalam bedah kosmetik dan membakar operasi. Hal ini banyak digunakan dalam bentuk casing kolagen untuk sosis, yang juga digunakan dalam pembuatan string musik.
Jika kolagen tunduk denaturasi yang cukup, misalnya dengan pemanasan, tiga helai tropocollagen memisahkan sebagian atau seluruhnya ke dalam domain globular, yang berisi struktur sekunder yang berbeda dengan Polyproline kolagen yang normal II (PPII), misalnya kumparan acak. Proses ini menjelaskan pembentukan gelatin, yang digunakan dalam banyak makanan, termasuk makanan penutup gelatin rasa. Selain makanan, agar-agar telah digunakan dalam farmasi, kosmetik, dan industri fotografi. Dari sudut pandang gizi, kolagen dan gelatin adalah satu-satunya sumber berkualitas rendah protein karena mereka tidak mengandung semua asam amino esensial dalam proporsi bahwa tubuh manusia membutuhkan-mereka tidak 'protein yang lengkap' (seperti yang didefinisikan oleh ilmu makanan, bukan bahwa mereka adalah sebagian terstruktur). Produsen berbasis kolagen suplemen diet biasanya mengandung kolagen hidrolisat mengklaim bahwa produk mereka dapat memperbaiki kulit dan kualitas kuku serta kesehatan sendi. Namun, penelitian ilmiah utama belum menunjukkan bukti kuat untuk mendukung klaim tersebut. Individu dengan masalah di daerah ini lebih mungkin untuk menderita dari beberapa kondisi yang mendasarinya lainnya (seperti penuaan normal, kulit kering, arthritis dll) daripada hanya kekurangan protein.
Dari Yunani untuk lem, Kolla, kata kolagen berarti "produser lem" dan mengacu pada proses awal mendidih kulit dan otot-otot kuda dan hewan lainnya untuk mendapatkan lem. Kolagen perekat digunakan oleh orang Mesir sekitar 4.000 tahun yang lalu, dan penduduk asli Amerika digunakan dalam busur sekitar 1.500 tahun yang lalu. Lem tertua di dunia, karbon-tanggal sebagai berusia lebih dari 8.000 tahun, ditemukan kolagen digunakan sebagai lapisan pelindung pada keranjang tali dan kain bordir, dan untuk mengadakan peralatan bersama-sama; juga di merambah dekorasi pada tengkorak manusia.Collagen biasanya mengkonversi ke gelatin, tapi selamat karena kondisi kering. lem hewan termoplastik, melembutkan lagi setelah pemanasan, dan sehingga mereka masih digunakan dalam pembuatan alat musik seperti biola baik dan gitar, yang mungkin harus dibuka kembali untuk perbaikan-aplikasi yang tidak kompatibel dengan tangguh, perekat plastik sintetis, yang permanen. otot hewan dan kulit, termasuk kulit, telah digunakan untuk membuat artikel yang berguna selama ribuan tahun.
Gelatin-resorsinol-formaldehida lem (dan dengan formaldehida digantikan oleh pentanedial kurang beracun dan ethanedial) telah digunakan untuk memperbaiki sayatan eksperimental di paru-paru kelinci.
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Gluthatione
Gluthatione
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in plants, animals, fungi, and some bacteria and archaea, Preventing damage to important cellular components the caused by reactive oxygen species such as free radicals, peroxides, lipid peroxides and heavy metals. It is a tripeptide with a gamma peptide linkage between the carboxyl group of the glutamate side-chain and the amine group of cysteine (which is attached by a normal peptide linkage to a glycine.
Thiol groups are reducing agents, existing at a concentration around 5 mM in animal cells. Reduces glutathione disulfide bonds formed within cytoplasmic proteins to cysteines by serving as an electron donor. In the process, glutathione is converted to its oxidized form, glutathione disulfide (GSSG), Also called L - (-) - glutathione.
Once oxidized glutathione back can be reduced by glutathione reductase, using NADPH as an electron donor. The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is Often used as a measure of cellular toxicity.
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